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Mishneh Torah by the Rambam – Volume IV – Nezikin-Shoftim – Venice, 1575 – Signatures and Glosses of the Torah Scholars of the Alfandari Family of Constantinople Mishneh Torah by the Rambam, with Hasagot HaRaavad and Maggid Mishneh, and the Kesef Mishneh commentary by R. Yosef Karo, vol. IV, Nezikin-Shoftim. Venice: Bragadin, 1575. This copy was passed down as an inheritance in the line of Torah scholars of the Alfandari family, who recorded their glosses in the margins. The flyleaf contains many inscriptions and calligraphic signatures of the Torah scholars of the Alfandari family: " Yaakov Alfandari", " Yitzchak Refael Alfandari", " Chaim Alfandari", " Avraham Alfandari", " Shlomo Alfandari", " Shabtai Alfandari". The book contains numerous glosses from several (four or five) writers. A gloss on p. 7a from one of the writers, signed "A.A." [=Avraham Alfandari?], mentions "The rabbi, my teacher and grandfather, in the book Mikra'ei Kodesh…" (by R. Chaim Abulafia). On p. 249b, there is a lengthy gloss from one of the writers, followed by another gloss relating to it: "What the rabbi and dayan wrote…". Another lengthy gloss on p. 287a, signed "A.Ch.A." [=Amar Chaim Alfandari?]; and on p. 288b, there is a gloss in a different handwriting signed "Ch. A." [=Chaim Alfandari?]. The Alfandari family of Torah scholars was one of the prominent families in Constantinople. Members of this family served as rabbis and dayanim in the city – R. Chaim Alfandari the first (the elder), his sons R. Yaakov Alfandari and R. Yitzchak Refael Alfandari, his grandson R. Chaim Alfandari the second, and other family members. The progenitor of this rabbinical dynasty – R. Chaim Alfandari the elder (1588-1640), was a leading Torah scholar of Constantinople. Some of his responsa were printed in Maggid MeReshit (Constantinople, 1710), published by his grandson R. Chaim the second. R. Chaim the elder had a brother named R. Shabtai Alfandari, also a leader of his generation (a responsum addressed to him appears in Maaseh Chiya by R. Chiya the physician, Venice, 1652, leaf 57). R. Chaim the elder had two sons: R. Yaakov Alfandari (d. before 1718), a leading rabbi of Constantinople, whom the Mishneh LeMelech addressed as his teacher, referring to him in his composition as "one of the leaders of the generation". Most of his novellae were burned, and the small remaining part was published in the Mutzal MeEsh section (within the book Esh Dat, Constantinople, 1718), published by his nephew R. Chaim Alfandari the second. R. Chaim the elder's second son was R. Yitzchak Refael Alfandari (d. 1649), also a leading Torah scholar of Constantinople. He immigrated to Eretz Israel near the end of his life and settled in Safed. Remnants of his teachings were published by his son – R. Chaim the second – in Maggid MeReshit. R. Chaim Alfandari the second (1660-ca.1733) was also a leading and prominent Torah scholar of Constantinople. His teachings were published in several books, including Maggid MeReshit – the teachings of his father and grandfather which he published, in his book of homilies Esh Dat (Constantinople, 1718), Rav Yosef (Constantinople, 1733), and his glosses to various compositions. Other members of the family include R. Eliyahu son of R. Yaakov Alfandari (1670-1717), author of Michtav MeEliyahu (Constantinople, 1723), and other Torah scholars. A renowned scion of this family in recent times was the Saba Kaddisha R. Shlomo Eliezer Alfandari (ca. 1813-1930), who passed away at an exceptionally old age in Jerusalem. , 297,  leaves. Leaf 166 bound out of sequence, after leaf 169. 28 cm. Fair condition. Stains and wear. Dampstains (severe stains to some leaves). Worming. Worming to approx. 30 leaves at end of book, affecting page headings. Large tear to leaf 285, with loss of approx. half the leaf. Minor damage and tears to title page and a few other leaves, repaired. Tears affecting text to six final leaves (some of the index leaves), with some loss, repaired with paper. New leather binding.